We all know that every engine requires Oxygen and fuel as intake to produce power but have we ever wondered about the path this charge follows before reaching the combustion chamber? Here in this article, we will follow a tiny particle of air starting from outside atmosphere until it reaches its desired location. The system thus formed is known by the name of Intake System in automobile.
The work of this operation is to provide clean and pure air to engine. So to gain more power for your car. Oxygen being one of the most important constituent for combustion.
Components( Order may be different with respect to different vehicle ):
Recent fuel-injected air intake system in automobile briefly includes-
Air Filter- intake system in automobile
Air intake system in automobile ,It is first and foremost component that removes big and small particles out of the atmospheric air. These particles can disturb the smooth working of engine causing excessive damage in crucial parts. A screen prevents particles like leaves and insects from entering while air filter do the same with finer ones like dust, dirt etc.
Mass Air Flow Sensor- intake system in automobile
To control the mass of air flowing in accordance with fuel to be burned, Mass flow meter/sensor are used which sends the signal to Electronic Control Module(ECM). Majority of the vehicles use a Mass Air Flow Meter(MAF) while other inhibits Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor.
MAF equippes series of hot wire in the path of air flow. When air flows through these wires, it coolens the temperature and there is decrease in resistance, which in turn allows more current to flow in the circuit. When temperatures increases again, an equilibrium state is achieved.
In MAP sensor, when we press he gas pedal, a silicon chip flexes, resistance is altered. ECU reads this resistance change and transforms it into a voltage change. Therefore, it knows whether to inject more or less fuel as per the flow of air.
Throttle Body- intake system in automobile
Throttle body delivers conrtol by pressing “accelerator pedal”. When accelerator is pressed, throttle plate/butterfly valve opens and sends air into the engine resulting in increased power and speed. It is controlled via electronically or cable based.
Intake manifold have single inlet and number of outlets. These outputs are to deliver air/air fuel mixture to the cylinders. The function of these manifolds is to distribute the air(and fuel) mixture from carburetor or throttle body to cylinder and from where it is taken to combustion chamber.
Intake valves usually opens 1-20 degrees before Top dead Center, this stroke allows piston to move down while taking in the charge provided.